定义：电极主要由铅及其氧化物制成，电解液是硫酸溶液的一种蓄电池。 英文名称：Lead-acid battery 。放电状态下，正极主要成分为二氧化铅，负极主要成分为铅；充电状态下，正负极的主要成分均为硫酸铅。分为排气式蓄电池和免维护铅酸电池。
铅酸蓄电池最明显的特征是其顶部有可拧开的塑料密封盖，上面还有通气孔。这些注液盖是用来加注纯水、检查电解液和排放气体之用。按照理论上说，铅酸蓄电池需要在每次保养时检查电解液的密度和液面高度，如果有缺少需添加蒸馏水。但随着蓄电池制造技术的升级，铅酸蓄电池发展为铅酸免维护蓄电池和胶体免维护电池，铅酸蓄电池使用中无需添加电解液或蒸馏水。主要是利用正极产生氧气可在负极吸收达到氧循环，可防止水分减少。铅酸水电池大多应用在牵引车、三轮车、汽车起动等，而免维护铅酸蓄电池应用范围更广，包括不间断电源、电动车动力、电动自行车电池等。铅酸蓄电池根据应用需要分为恒流放电（如 不间断电源）和瞬间放电（如 汽车启动电池）。
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Definition: The electrode is mainly made of lead and its oxide, and the electrolyte is a battery of sulfuric acid solution. English name: Lead-acid battery. In the discharge state, the main component of the positive electrode is lead dioxide, and the main component of the negative electrode is lead; in the state of charge, the main components of the positive and negative electrodes are lead sulfate. Divided into exhaust battery and maintenance-free lead-acid battery.
The battery is mainly composed of a tubular positive plate, a negative plate, an electrolyte, a separator, a battery tank, a battery cover, a pole, a liquid injection cover and the like. The electrode of the vented battery is composed of an oxide of lead and lead, and the electrolyte is an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. The main advantage is that the voltage is stable and the price is cheap; the disadvantage is that the specific energy is low (that is, the energy stored per kilogram of the battery), the service life is short, and the daily maintenance is frequent. Old-fashioned ordinary batteries generally have a life span of about 2 years, and it is necessary to regularly check the height of the electrolyte and add distilled water. However, with the development of technology, the life of lead-acid batteries has become longer and the maintenance is simpler.
The most obvious feature of a lead-acid battery is that it has a screw-open plastic sealing cap on top and a venting hole. These filling caps are used to fill pure water, check electrolytes and vent gases. In theory, lead-acid batteries need to check the density and level of the electrolyte at each maintenance. If there is a shortage, add distilled water. However, with the upgrade of battery manufacturing technology, lead-acid batteries have developed into lead-acid maintenance-free batteries and gel-free maintenance-free batteries. Lead-acid batteries do not require the addition of electrolyte or distilled water. The main purpose is to use the positive electrode to generate oxygen to absorb the oxygen in the negative electrode to prevent the water from decreasing. Lead-acid water batteries are mostly used in tractors, tricycles, and automobile starters, while maintenance-free lead-acid batteries have a wider range of applications, including uninterruptible power supplies, electric vehicle power, and electric bicycle batteries. Lead-acid batteries are classified into constant current discharges (such as uninterruptible power supplies) and transient discharges (such as automotive start batteries) depending on the application.
Lead carbon battery
Lead-carbon battery is a kind of capacitive lead-acid battery. It is a technology evolved from the traditional lead-acid battery. It is added with activated carbon in the negative electrode of lead-acid battery, which can significantly improve the life of lead-acid battery.
Lead-carbon battery is a new type of super battery. It combines lead-acid battery and super-capacitor: it not only takes advantage of the ultra-capacitor instant large-capacity charging, but also exerts the specific energy advantage of lead-acid battery, and has very Good charge and discharge performance - fully charged in 90 minutes (if the lead-acid battery is charged and discharged, the life expectancy is less than 30 times). Moreover, due to the addition of carbon (graphene), the sulphation of the negative electrode is prevented, which improves a factor of battery failure in the past and prolongs battery life.